Forklift Truck Components

On a typical counterbalanced forklift you will find the the following components:

The Truck Frame - The truck frame is the base of the machine. The mast, axles, wheels, counterweight, overhead guard and power source are attached to the forklift truck frame. The frame may have fuel and hydraulic fluid tanks as part of the frame assembly.

The Counterweight - The counterwight is attached to the rear of the forklift truck and is a heavy cast iron mass. It's purpose is to counterbalance the load being lifted. It is possible that on an electric forklift the large lead-acid battery may serve as part of the counterweight for the forklift.

The Cab - The cab contains a seat for the operator and the control pedals, steering wheel levers, switches and a dashboard that contains operator readouts. The cab area may be open or enclosed, but it is covered by an overhead guard assembly.

The Overhead Guard - The overhead guard is a metal roof supported by posts at each corner of the cab that helps protect the operator. This includes protection from any falling objects. On some forklifts, the overhead guard is part of the frame assembly

The Power Source - The power source may consist of an internal combustion engine. The engine may be powered by LP gas (liquefied petroleum gas), CNG as (compressed natural gas), gasoline or diesel. Electric forklifts are powered by either a lead-acid battery or fuel cells that provide power to electric motors. The motors may be either DC (direct current) or AC (alternating current).

Tilt Cylinders - The tilt cylinders are hydraulic cylinders that are mounted to the truck frame and the mast. The tilt cylinders pivot the mast to assist in engaging a load.

The Mast - The mast is the vertical assembly that does the work of raising and lowering the load. It is made up of interlocking rails that also provide lateral stability. The rails may either have rollers or bushings as guides. The forklift mast may be hydraulically operated by one or more hydraulic cylinders. Or it may be chain operated with a hydraulic motor providing power. It may be mounted to the front axle or the frame of the forklift.

The Carriage - The carriage is the component to which the forks or other attachments mount. It is mounted into and moves up and down the mast rails. This is accomplished by means of chains or by being directly attached to the hydraulic cylinder. Like the mast, the carriage may have either rollers or bushings to guide it in the interlocking mast rails.

The Load Back Rest - The load back rest is a rack-like extension that is either bolted or welded to the carriage in order to prevent the load from shifting backward when the carriage is lifted to full height.

Attachments - Attachements may consist of forks that are the L-shaped members that hold the load. A variety of other types of material handling attachments are available.

forklift truck components





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